Posted: 2017-11-10 18:15
Traffic shaping is the control of computer network traffic in order to optimize or guarantee performance, improve latency, and/or increase usable bandwidth for some kinds of packets by delaying other kinds of packets that meet certain criteria. During penetration test traffic shaping can also control the volume of traffic being sent into a network in a specified period, or the maximum rate at which the traffic is sent. For these reasons traffic shaping is important to detect at the network edges to avoid packet dropping and packet marking.
Intelligence Gathering is the phase where data or "intelligence" is gathered to assist in guiding the assessment actions. At the broadest level this intelligence gathering includes information about employees, facilities, products and plans. Within a larger picture this intelligence will include potentially secret or private "intelligence" of a competitor, or information that is otherwise relevant to the target.
This section is designed to be the PTES technical guidelines that help define certain procedures to follow during a penetration test. Something to be aware of is that these are only baseline methods that have been used in the industry. They will need to be continuously updated and changed upon by the community as well as within your own standard. Guidelines are just that, something to drive you in a direction and help during certain scenarios, but not an all encompassing set of instructions on how to perform a penetration test. Think outside of the box.
The key distribution attack exploits a weakness in the RADIUS protocol. The key distribution attack relies on an attacker capturing the PMK transmission between the RADIUS server and the AP. As the PMK is transmitted outside of the TLS tunnel, its protection is solely reliant on the RADIUS server's HMAC-MD5 hashing algorithm. Should an attacker be able to leverage a man-in-the-middle attack between the AP and RADIUS sever, a brute-force attempt could be made to crack the RADIUS shared secret. This would ultimately provide the attacker with access to the PMK - allowing full decryption of all traffic between the AP and supplicant.
A product of the vast amount of security research is the discovery of vulnerabilities and associated Proof of Concept (PoC) and/or exploit code. The results from the vulnerability identification phase must be individually validated and where exploits are available, these must be validated. The only exception would be an exploit that results in a Denial of Service (DoS). This would need to be included in the scope to be considered for validation. There are numerous sites that offer such code for download that should be used as part of the Vulnerability Analysis phase.
The RADIUS impersonation attack relies on users being left with the decision to trust or reject certificates from the authenticator. Attackers can exploit this deployment weakness by impersonating the target network's AP service set identifier (SSID) and RADIUS server. Once both the RADIUS server and AP have been impersonated the attacker can issue a 'fake' certificate to the authenticating user. After the certificate has been accepted by the user the client will proceed to authenticate via the inner authentication mechanism. This allows the attacker to capture the MSCHAPv7 challenge/response and attempt to crack it offline.
Badge usage refers to a physical security method that involves the use of identification badges as a form of access control. Badging systems may be tied to a physical access control system or simply used as a visual validation mechanism. Observing individual badge usage is important to document. By observing, badge usage it may be possible to actually duplicate the specific badge being utilized. The specific items that should be noted are if the badge is required to be visible or shown to gain physical access to the property or facility. Badge usage should be documented and if possible, include observed validation procedures.
VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary Layer 7 messaging protocol that manages the addition, deletion, and renaming of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN) on a network-wide basis. Cisco's VLAN Trunk Protocol reduces administration in a switched network. When a new VLAN is configured on one VTP server, the VLAN is distributed through all switches in the domain. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN everywhere. To do this, VTP carries VLAN information to all the switches in a VTP domain. VTP advertisements can be sent over ISL, , IEEE and LANE trunks. VTP is available on most of the Cisco Catalyst Family products. The tool for attacking VTP is Yersinia.
httprint is a web server fingerprinting tool. It relies on web server characteristics to accurately identify web servers, despite the fact that they may have been obfuscated by changing the server banner strings, or by plug-ins such as mod_security or servermask. httprint can also be used to detect web enabled devices which do not have a server banner string, such as wireless access points, routers, switches, cable modems, etc. httprint uses text signature strings and it is very easy to add signatures to the signature database.
The classic ARP request replay attack is the most effective way to generate new initialization vectors. This attack is probably the most reliable of all. The program listens for an ARP packet then retransmits it back to the AP. This, in turn causes the AP to repeat the ARP packet with a new IV. The program retransmits the same ARP packet over and over. However, each ARP packet repeated by the AP has a new IV. The collection of these IVs will later help us later in determining the WEP key.
Finally, the Metasploit Framework itself needs to be configured. While its possible to configure each service by hand, its more efficient to use a resource file with the msfconsole interface. A sample resource file, configured to use as the access point address, with nearly every feature enabled, can be downloaded here . To use this resource file, run msfconsole with the -r parameter. Keep in mind that msfconsole must be run as root for the capture services to function.
MacOS X is a BSD-derived operating. With standard command shells (such as sh , csh , and bash ) and native network utilities that can be used during a penetration test (including telnet , ftp , rpcinfo , snmpwalk , host , and dig ) it is the system of choice and is the underlying host system for our penetration testing tools. Since this is a hardware platform as well, this makes the selection of specific hardware extremely simple and ensures that all tools will work as designed.
Identifying any recent or future offsite gatherings or parties via either the corporate website or via a search engine can provide valuable insight into the corporate culture of a target. It is often common practice for businesses to have offsite gatherings not only for employees, but also for business partners and customers. Collecting this data could provide insight into potential items of interest to an attacker.
The credentials to access this will need to be established prior to attempting to access. Once you have the logged in, you will be presented with the Reports Interface. Prior to running any Nessus scan, the product should be validated to ensure that it has been properly updated with the latest signatures. This process is normally run as part of a scheduled task, but you can run click on "About" which will present the Windows which contains data about the installation.
A window with available network connections will open. As you can see from the screenshot below, the list is split by the type of available network connections. At the top you have dial-up and virtual private network (VPN) connections, while at the bottom you have a list of all the wireless networks which Windows 7 has detected. To refresh the list of available networks, click on the button highlighted in the screenshot below.
To start, look to the very upper left-hand corner of Maltego and click the "new graph" button. After that, drag the "domain" item out of the palette onto the graph. The graph area allows you to process the transforms as well as view the data in either the mining view, dynamic view, edge weighted view as well as the entity list. When you first add the domain icon to your graph, it will default to "" double-click on that icon and change the name to your target's domain(without any subdomain such as www). Now you are ready to start mining.
Cancer is the worst. And, maybe thanks to Movember and pink consumer goods , we’re all extremely aware. Too aware. Because we’ve gotten it drilled into our heads to always get tested, patients are ignoring the risks of unnecessary cancer screenings , says the New York Times. Low-risk patients often get false positives, leading to dangerous and wasteful misapplications of radiation and chemotherapy.
DNS zone transfer, also known as AXFR, is a type of DNS transaction. It is a mechanism designed to replicate the databases containing the DNS data across a set of DNS servers. Zone transfer comes in two flavors, full (AXFR) and incremental (IXFR). There are numerous tools available to test the ability to perform a DNS zone transfer. Tools commonly used to perform zone transfers are host, dig and nmap.
Key to the value proposition here is that the Air Force would still have to outfit the new 797-8 s with all of the unusual and expensive riggings that Air Force One requires. These include private conference rooms in the cabin, private quarters for the president, an operating room for medical emergencies, a mid-air refueling probe, flares hidden in the wings to deter missile attacks, and a fuselage that can survive a nuclear blast on the ground. Based on a Pentagon budget request , the Air Force has the budget to spend nearly $ billion on these modifications. It’s so far unclear how much the Air Force would pay Boeing for the two planes recovered from Transaero, and it’s possible we might never know the price of the deal.
If the target site needs to accessed through a proxy server, select Network Proxy and then choose an option from the Proxy Profile list. The default is to Use Internet Explorer. The other options available are Autodetect, Use PAC File, Use Explicit Proxy Settings, and Use Mozilla Firefox. Autodetect uses the Web Proxy Autodiscovery Protocol (WPAD) to locate a proxy autoconfig file and use this to configure the browser's Web proxy settings. Use PAC File loads proxy settings from a Proxy Automatic Configuration (PAC) file. Use Explicit Proxy Settings allows you to specify proxy server settings. Use Mozilla Firefox imports the proxy server information from Firefox.