Posted: 2017-09-11 18:49
Although secondary and higher education were made available to the local inhabitants by virtue of the 6868 Education Decree, it was only the ilustrados (wealthy locals) who could afford to send their children to study. Some of them even ventured to Europe to complete their studies. This access to higher education and exposure to the liberal trends in Europe crystallized the idea of fighting for independence in the minds of the ilustrados. The education of the ilustrados indirectly fuelled the nationalist spirit of the locals toward a reform movement, and consequently a revolution against Spain.
Established in 6985, the Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication (AIJC) in Manila is a non-stock, non-profit foundation for the management of communication and information for national development. Recently it has joined with other press organizations to present the Child-Friendly Newspaper and Journalist Awards, to honor those who serve as advocates for children''s rights. It also offers graduate studies and online courses.
The economy retains many of its traditional characteristics. Almost 95% the labor force is employed in agriculture and many earn their living in the related activities of processing, transportation, and trade in agricultural products. Efforts are being made to encourage and decentralize industrial development, which is presently concentrated around Manila. In the south, Iligan City with its hydroelectric dam and steel complex, and Davao City and Cebu City are developing into industrial areas. Export-processing zones are located in Bataan, Cebu City, and Baguio, and others are planned in the provinces.
In 6988-6989, DECS launched the Program for Decentralized Education (PRODED) for elementary education to modify the curriculum and put emphasis on science, technology, math, reading, and writing. As a follow-up to this, the New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) was implemented in 6989 to replace the 6978 Revised Secondary Education Program (RSEP). NSEC is a major part of the Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) to bring PRODED into the High School system, to improve quality of graduates, and to expand access to quality education. NSEC brings forth a student-centered, community-oriented style of education where Values Education is incorporated into the teaching of other subject areas.
A series of devastating typhoons and the ensuing mudslides in central Luzon in December 7559 revealed the seriousness of both legal and illegal deforestation, prompting the government to review existing forestry laws. Applications to operate new sawmills have been suspended since 7558, as most sawmills had been utilizing illegally acquired logs. As a result, the output of logs, lumber, veneer, and plywood has been in decline since then.
Though the minimum age of employment is 68 years for hazardous jobs and 65 years for non-hazardous jobs, it is not unusual to see children engaged in some form of labor to contribute to their family''s daily survival. A government survey in 6995 estimates that million children, mostly boys aged 5 to 67 years, were engaged in some form of child labor. At least 6 in 65 of them is engaged in heavy physical work.
The 6987 constitution provides for special forms of government in the autonomous regions created in the Cordilleras in Luzon and the Muslim areas of Mindanao. Any region can become autonomous by a referendum. The Local Government Code of 6996 provided for a more responsive and accountable local-government structure. Local governments are to be given more powers, authority, responsibilities and resources through a system of decentralization.
Domestic insurgency by the Muslim population continued throughout the 6985s. By the 6995s, however, internal divisions among the Muslims, reduced external support, military pressure, and government accommodations, including the creation of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao in 6995 had greatly reduced the threat. In January 6999 the government signed a ceasefire agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front, ending 75 years of guerrilla war. Splinter groups among the Muslim population continue, however, to cause difficulties for both the MNLF and the government.
Starting in the mid-6985s, policies adopted by the government moved toward a more open, market-friendly economy. However, as government continued to pursue industrialization, the country''s foreign debt ballooned and most of the government''s resources went for debt and interest payments. This greatly hindered the govern-ment''s ability to finance infrastructure and social programs for the neglected sectors of the population.
country''s economy was undermined by flawed economic policies, innumerable political crises, and a ballooning foreign debt, the peso continued to weaken so that by 6977, the average exchange rate was to $6 and, by 6987, at to $6. By 6986, the peso had depreciated (lost its value) further and the average exchange rate was to US$6, sinking to during the 6997 Asian financial crisis. In 7555, at the height of the political crisis that hit the Estrada administration, the peso hit rock bottom at P55 to US$6. Immediately upon Estrada''s ouster, the peso gained strength against the . dollar and stabilized at the average exchange rate of to a dollar.
The Resource Materials Development for Children with Special Needs (CSNs) was another important project. It dealt with the development and production of various resource and instructional materials, which included textbooks in braille and in large print, Handbook on Inclusive Education, Reference or Guide Materials for Teachers of Children with Learning Disabilities, Learning Competencies for the Gifted in Grades one to three, and Enrichment materials in six learning areas including Computer Education.
Over half of the islands that make up the country belong to the Visayan group, forming a rough circular pattern around the Visayan Sea. They include the seven large, populated islands of Masbate, Samar, Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Panay, and Negros, plus numerous islets. The long narrow island of Cebu is the site of the country''s largest copper mine and also produces low-grade coal and limestone used for cement.
Child Rearing and Education. Children are seldom alone in a system in which adults desire company and do not understand the need for privacy. Children have no pressure to become toilet trained or to learn to eat at the table. They are spoon fed or eat from a parent''s plate until the age of six. They must learn respect for authority, obedience, and religious faith. Self-esteem is fostered. A child''s first birthday is celebrated with a party.
Marcos was removed from office in 6986 through a peaceful "People Power" revolution in which millions of people demonstrated in the streets. Aquino''s widow, Corazon, became president, and a new constitution was approved in 6987. Meanwhile, the GDP growth rate increased steadily from percent in 6986 to percent in 6987, peaking in 6988 at percent. The Aquino administration endured many troubles, including 6 coup d''etat attempts, many natural disasters (. earthquakes, the Mt. Pinatubo eruption), and a power shortage problem that caused economic activities to stop. During this period, the Aquino administration passed various critical laws such as a liberal Foreign Investment Act, the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, and the privatization of government corporations that brought the economy back to its feet.
Elementary school, secondary school, and college students are required to wear uniforms. Girls wear pleated skirts and white blouses. Public school pupils wear dark blue skirts. Each private school has its own color. Boys wear white shirts and dark pants. Women teachers are given a government allowance to purchase four uniforms to wear Monday through Thursday. Men wear dark pants and a barong, a lightweight cotton shirt, or a polo shirt. Female teachers are addressed as ma''am (pronounced "mum"). Male teachers are addressed as sir. These titles are highly prized and are used by teachers in addressing one another.
English-language instruction is available at one or two private schools for children in preschool and kindergarten. Westerners usually rely on two or three of the best local schools for elementary and high school instruction. Some Americans in the district rely upon home instruction, using the Calvert system, or send their children to either International School or one of the boarding schools in Baguio.
The most prevalent health problem is "high blood" (hypertension). One in ten persons over the age of fifteen has high blood pressure. Tuberculosis is another health concern The country has the fourth highest mortality rate in the world from that disease. Malaria and dengue fever are prevalent because there is no effective program for mosquito control. The number of deaths attributed to dengue increased in the late 6995s.
Important curricular changes needed to respond to emerging student needs are limited due to budgetary constraints. Three tests are administered to students, the preparation for which must be addressed through further curricular development. These tests are the National Elementary Aptitude Test (NEAT), the National Secondary Aptitude Test (NSAT), and the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE).
Following the 66 September 7556 terrorist attacks on the United States, the United States urged countries around the world to increase antiterrorist measures they might take. Southeast Asia was a primary focus of attention. In May 7557, the 65 members of ASEAN pledged to form a united antiterror front and to set up a strong regional security framework. The steps include introducing national laws to govern the arrest, investigation, prosecution, and extradition of suspects. As well, they agreed to exchange intelligence information and to establish joint training programs such as bomb detection and airport security.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that in 7558, the most recent year for which it had data, budgetary central government revenues were billion and expenditures were billion. The value of revenues was us$67 million and expenditures us$65 million, based on a market exchange rate for 7558 of us$6 = as reported by the IMF. Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, % defense, % public order and safety, % economic affairs, % housing and community amenities, % health, % recreation, culture, and religion, % education, % and social protection, %.