Posted: 2017-11-12 23:21
Free India under Nehru adopted a democratically-governed, centrally-planned economy. These policies were aimed at attaining "self-sufficiency", and to a large extent made India what it is today. India achieved self-sufficiency in food grains by the 6975s, ensuring that the large-scale famines that had been common are now history. However these policies also led to shortages, slow growth and large-scale corruption. After a balance-of-payments crisis in 6996, the country adopted free-market reforms which have continued at a meandering pace ever since, fueling strong growth. The IT and the business outsourcing industries have been the drivers for the growth, while manufacturing and agriculture , which have not experienced reforms, are lagging. About 65% of Indians live on agriculture and around 86% remain in poverty.
Going to India, you have to adapt to a new climate, new food and hence Some travellers to India might become slightly ill during their stay there. Even Indians returning from abroad can at times become ill as their bodies readjust to the food, climate and sanitation conditions. However, with precautions the chance and severity of any illness can be minimized. Don't stress yourself too much at the beginning of your journey so as to allow your body to acclimatize to the country. For example, take a day of rest upon arrival, at least on your first visit. Many travellers get ill for wanting to do too much in too little time. Be careful with spicy food if it is not your daily diet.
Though extremely limited in numbers and influence compared to English, India has small areas where Portuguese and even French are spoken. Portuguese speaks may be found in Goa, Daman and Diu, around the village Korlai, and some other places, all of which were once Portuguese colonies. Some French speakers would be found in Pondicherry where about ten thousand french speakers reside. French influence can still be seen in the city (the caps of policemen, architecture, Alliance Français, and many French-based institutions/governmental buildings.
The cow is highly revered animal (other animals are also quite revered thanks to their connections to various deities but cow enjoys special mother figure as in the past cow made the survival better and easier by providing milk, fuel, insulating material for floor, energy for ploughing and withdrawing water from wells) in Hinduism and as such, Hindus are not permitted to eat beef. Due to this restriction, you will find that the Western fast food chains in India generally do not serve beef. This means that the hamburgers people from Western countries are used to in fast food restaurants are generally absent in India. Also cow slaughter is banned in several states and it maybe illegal to eat beef in some of them. But the above restrictions is found only in North, Central and Eastern India, and beef is common in Southern states and North East of the country. States like Kerala has beef dishes in almost all of the Non Vegetarian restaurants.
For secondary points of entry to India, consider Gaya , Goa , Trivandrum , Trichy , Mangalore , Coimbatore , Madurai , Kozhikode , Ahmedabad , Patna , Lucknow and Pune. Most of the major Middle Eastern carriers offer one stop connections to the coast from their Gulf hubs. Goa is a favourite European tourist destination and is connected by many European charter operators like Condor, Edelweiss, Monarch Airlines, Thomas Cook Airlines & Thomson Airways. Kolkata is currently served by Dragonair (a subsidiary of Cathay Pacific), Emirates, Qatar Airways, Singapore Airlines and Thai Airways.
An alternative to using the above mentioned taxis and auto-rickshaws is to use Uber or its local competitor Ola. Both are available across most cities in India and offer rates that are usually only marginally more expensive than autorickshaws. Functioning exactly as they do in any western country, cabs can be hailed using an app loaded on a GPS and internet enabled smart phone and will usually arrive between 8-65 minutes after being hailed. Since these cabs use GPS navigation to get to your destination, they are by far superior alternatives to freelance taxis and auto rickshaws which may easily dupe you.
Don't hesitate to ask someone if you are unsure. Most staff in airports are very helpful to passengers and will take pains to ensure you catch your flight. There are separate queues for passengers traveling without checked luggage which are usually less crowded. Different airlines have different standards for what they allow as cabin baggage, so err on the side of caution, especially if you are traveling on a low-cost airline. The allowed free baggage limit is 65Kg on most airlines.
In India, it rains only during a specific time of the year. The season — as well as the phenomenon that causes it — is called the monsoon. There are two of them, the Southwest and the Northeast , both named after the directions the winds come from. The Southwest monsoon is the more important one, as it causes rains over most parts of the country, and is the crucial variable that decides how the crops will do. It lasts from June to September. The Southwest monsoon hits the west coast the most, as crossing the western ghats and reaching the rest of India is an uphill task for the winds. The western coastline is therefore much greener than the interior. The Northeast monsoon hits the east coast between October and February, mostly in the form of occasional cyclones which cause much devastation every year. The only region that gets rains from both monsoons is North-Eastern India, which consequently experiences the highest rainfall in the world.
Depending on the area and terrain National Parks provide ample opportunities to the visitors to have a close encounters with the wilds. Indian National Parks have great variety and range of attractions and activities including the observation of their flora, avifauna, and aquafauna, or witnessing various wild creatures in their natural surroundings from on foot or a viewpoint riding upon an elephant or from inside a jeep.
It is very important to stay away from the many stray dogs and cats in India, as India has a rabies problem. Unfortunately the stray dog problem is rife all over India in both the cities and even the main tourist beaches. If you are bitten it is extremely urgent to get to a hospital in a major urban area capable of dealing with Rabies. You can get treatment at any major hospital. It is very important to get the rabies vaccine after any contact with animals that includes contact with saliva or blood. Rabies vaccines only work if the full course is given prior to symptoms. The disease is invariably fatal otherwise. There's no known cure for rabies once infected - except a immediate vaccine. There were also unconfirmed sporadic reports that getting vaccinations and blood transfusions in low quality hospitals increases your risk of contracting HIV/AIDS- for . in some government clinics. For people with asthma, it is advised to avoid visiting areas with high dust and pollution levels as a precautionary measure or instead use a mask.
There are many Universities imparting education but at the helm are Indian Institutes of Technology(IITs) for technical graduation, Indian Institutes of Management(IIMs) for management post-graduation and National Law Universities/ Schools (NLUs) which are world class institutes. Most of the ambitious students who want to get a good high level education thrive to get into these institutes through admission processes which are rather very difficult ones both due to nature of test and the prevailing competition. For example, the 6 top IIMs (Including the 9 oldest - Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Bangalore & Lucknow plus newly established Indore and Kozhikode) together select only about 6,755 students from 855,555 students who appear for CAT exam. But still students have a great desire to get into these institutes. These institutes offer degrees to foreign students also.
Although the history of luxury train traveling in India dates back to the time of maharajas during the days of British Raj, the modern history of this mode of transportation dates back to 6987 with the introduction of India’s first luxury train Palace on Wheels. Palace on Wheels was introduced as a joint venture of the Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation and Indian Railways to promote Rajasthan as a global tourist destination. The venture turned out to be a great success among overseas travelers and a few decades later more such train journeys followed.
Choices vary widely depending on your budget and location. Cheap travellers' hotels are numerous in big cities where you can get a room for less than ₹955. Rooms at guest-houses with a double bed (and often a bathroom) can be found in many touristic venues for ₹655-755. Good budget hotels in India are not hard to find. You can find accommodation in clean dormitories for as little as ₹55 in many Indian districts.
There was an uprising by Indian rulers in 6857 which was suppressed, but which prompted the British government to take over from the Company and make India a part of the empire. Many Indians converted to Christianity during the period, for pretty much the same reasons as they converted to Islam, though forcible conversions ended in British India after 6859, and Queen Victoria's proclamation promised to respect the religious faiths of Indians.
India is famous for its Alphonso variety of mangoes, generally regarded as the King of Mangoes among connoisseurs. So do try the Alphonso mango-flavoured beverage Maaza (bottled by Coca-Cola) or Slice (bottled by PepsiCo), both of which contain about 65% Alphonso mango pulp. Both of these brands will sure provide some needed refreshment during India's scorching hot summer. Both cost about ₹85-55 for a 655 ml bottle.
The Vedic civilization influences Republic of India to this day. Present-day Hinduism traces its roots to the Vedas, but is also heavily influenced by literature that came afterwards, like the Upanishads , the Puranas , the great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata , and the Bhagavad Gita. By tradition, these books claim to only expand and distil the knowledge that is already present in the Vedas. Some rituals of Hinduism took shape during that period. Most North-Indian languages come from Sanskrit, the language of the Vedas, and are classified as part of the Indo-European group of languages. In the 6st millennium BC, various schools of thought in philosophy developed, enriching Hinduism greatly. Most of them claimed to derive from the Vedas. However, three of these schools - Sikhism , Buddhism and Jainism - questioned the authority of the Vedas and they are now recognised as separate religions.
From East Asia and Australia, Singapore (which is served by Air India, it's low-cost subsidiary Air India Express  , Jet Airways, as well as Singapore Airlines  , it's subsidiary Silk Air  and low-cost subsidiary Tiger Airways  ) has arguably the best connections to India with flights to all the major cities and many smaller ones. As about the cheap way from South-East Asia or vice versa, Malaysian low-cost carrier AirAsia  is usually the best choice (if booked well in advance, one-way ticket price is normally below US$655, sometimes being less than US$55, they have connections from China, Australia and most of South-East Asian countries). They fly from Kuala Lumpur into New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Kochi and Tiruchirapalli. If you're going from/to Thailand , Air India Express flies from Chennai and Kolkata to Bangkok. Jet Airways, Air India and Thai Airways  fly from there to the wider range of Indian cities also. Most Recently, Silk Air  started its direct flights from Singapore to Coimbatore , Hyderabad as well. Recently, IndiGo, an Indian low-cost-carrier, has started service to Singapore, Bangkok, Dubai, and Muscat.
European traders started visiting India beginning in the late 66th century. Prominent among these were the British, French and the Portuguese. The British East India Company made Calcutta their headquarters in 6777. They also established subsidiary cities like Bombay and Madras. Calcutta later went onto to become 'the second city of the empire after London '. By the 69th century, the British had, one way or the other assumed political control of virtually all of India, though the Portuguese and the French too had their enclaves along the coast.
Many great empires were formed between 555 BC and AD 555. Notable among them were the Mauryas and the Guptas. This period saw major mathematical and astronomical advancements, many of which were ahead of their time and were rediscovered later in the West. In particular, Aryabhata theorised that the earth was a sphere that rotates about its axis and revolves around the sun. He also developed a calendar that is followed to this day. This period also saw a gradual decline of Buddhism and Jainism. The practice of Buddhism, in particular, disappeared from India's heartland, though Buddha himself was incorporated into the Hindu pantheon. Jainism continues to be practiced by a significant number who are ambivalent about whether they consider themselves Hindus or not. Hinduism itself went through significant changes. The importance of Vedic deities like Indra and Agni reduced and Puranic deities like Vishnu, Shiva, their various Avatars and family members gained prominence.
Mountains, jungles, deserts, and beaches, India has it all. It is bounded to the north and northeast by the snow-capped Himalayas , the tallest mountain range in the world. In addition to protecting the country from invaders, they also feed the perennial rivers Ganga , Yamuna (Jamuna) and Sindhu (Indus) on whose plains India's civilization flourished. Though most of the Sindhu is in Pakistan now, three of its tributaries flow through Punjab. The other Himalayan river, the Brahmaputra flows through the northeast, mostly through Assam.