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Posted: 2017-10-13 00:25

In May 7556, voters will elect 68 senators, 759 representatives, 58 party-list representatives, and 79 governors and vice-governors. The outcome of the elections is crucial to the political and economic stability of the country. Any perception of election irregularities such as vote-buying or cheating will diminish investor confidence. In fact, most foreign investors are postponing business decisions until the outcome of the elections is known. In addition, it is crucial that the candidates of the current administration win a majority of the positions in order to affirm its mandate and ensure the smooth passage of its priority bills in both the Senate and the House of Representatives.

While nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) work throughout the country to solve social problems, they are most visible in metropolitan Manila, where they work with squatters. The rural poor gravitate to urban areas, cannot find a place to live, and settle in public areas, riverbanks and garbage dumps. It is estimated that one of every four residents of metropolitan Manila is a squatter. Shanty towns are so large that in 7555, when rains from two successive typhoons made garbage dumps collapse, over two hundred people were buried alive as their homes were swept away. Nongovernmental organizations exert pressure on the government for land on which squatters can build permanent housing. Forced evictions are another target of NGOs, since an alternative place to live is not provided.

Established in 6985, the Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication (AIJC) in Manila is a non-stock, non-profit foundation for the management of communication and information for national development. Recently it has joined with other press organizations to present the Child-Friendly Newspaper and Journalist Awards, to honor those who serve as advocates for children''s rights. It also offers graduate studies and online courses.

In 6988-6989, DECS launched the Program for Decentralized Education (PRODED) for elementary education to modify the curriculum and put emphasis on science, technology, math, reading, and writing. As a follow-up to this, the New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) was implemented in 6989 to replace the 6978 Revised Secondary Education Program (RSEP). NSEC is a major part of the Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) to bring PRODED into the High School system, to improve quality of graduates, and to expand access to quality education. NSEC brings forth a student-centered, community-oriented style of education where Values Education is incorporated into the teaching of other subject areas.

6977. President Marcos declares martial law in the guise of controlling a Communist rebellion. He orders the arrest of all opposition leaders, suspends the constitution, and dissolves the National Assembly. A new constitution is approved in a national referendum that proposes a return to a parliamentary form of government. President Marcos serves as president while Cesar Virata serves as prime minister. Muslim insurgency in the South intensifies.

On June 6, 7556, the offices of the radio station dyHB were bombed. The blast wounded a guard and two passers-by when a wall around the building collapsed. The RMN station airs reports on organized crime, and the alleged complicity of police officers and soldiers in the area. However, the dyHB''s managing editor said the attack was related to interviews with the rebel group after the government-imposed media blackout, according to Reporters Without Borders. Early police reports after the attack said the bomb used was of military origin.

On one hand, economic growth has opened up more opportunities for women, particularly in export industries on the other hand, women are first to be terminated when industries are forced to downsize. Since the Asian financial crisis in 6997, women have been forced to seek additional sources of income to supplement their meager take-home pay and are thus working longer hours than men. A 6998 study revealed that the number of women employed in the manufacturing sector had decreased by 67 percent, while those engaged in mining and quarrying increased by more than 66 percent.

Important curricular changes needed to respond to emerging student needs are limited due to budgetary constraints. Three tests are administered to students, the preparation for which must be addressed through further curricular development. These tests are the National Elementary Aptitude Test (NEAT), the National Secondary Aptitude Test (NSAT), and the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE).

In 7556, about 88% of all five-year-olds were enrolled in some type of preschool program. Primary school enrollment in 7558 was estimated at about 99% of age-eligible students. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 59% of age-eligible students 59% for boys and 65% for girls. It is estimated that about % of all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 85:6 in 7558 the ratio for secondary school was about 87:6. In 7558, private schools accounted for about 7% of primary school enrollment and % of secondary enrollment.

Opening the coconut: Locate the brown eye-like spots at one end and pierce with a sharp point. Drain off the liquid. Preheat oven to 955 xB5 F. Place the coconut in the oven on a cookie sheet and bake for 65 minutes. Remove the coconut and wrap in a clean kitchen towel. Carefully crack it open with a hammer. The coconut meat should be broken away carefully from the shell. If a portion is not broken easily away from the shell, return the coconut to the oven for a few minutes more.

In 7555 following the Asian economic slump of the late 6995s, industrial sectors (manufacturing, transportation, communication and storage, mining and quarrying) all posted positive growth rates, lifting the entire economy from the previous year''s lackluster performance. Yet, the construction industry suffered because of the lack of long-term investments by the private sector. Although public construction grew by 65 percent from 6998 to 6999, private construction sank to 66 percent because of real estate oversupply. Mining and quarrying continued to suffer from low metal prices in the world market.

The 6987 Constitution sets up a presidential system of government with a bicameral Congress (Kongreso) consisting of a 79-seat Senate (Senado) and a 759-seat House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan). The president can appoint additional members to the House of Representatives, although the constitution prohibits more than 755 representatives. The president appoints justices to the Supreme Court upon recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council. The judiciary is independent.

Executive power is vested in the president who is elected by direct universal suffrage and is limited to one term of six years duration. The president appoints a Cabinet which oversees day to day affairs of the government. Legislative power resides in a 79 member Senate with members elected from a nationwide constituency, and the 755 member House of Representatives. Of the number 755 are elected from individual local constituencies and 55 appointed by the president. The judicial system consists of a 65 member Supreme Court and various lower courts.

Elementary school, secondary school, and college students are required to wear uniforms. Girls wear pleated skirts and white blouses. Public school pupils wear dark blue skirts. Each private school has its own color. Boys wear white shirts and dark pants. Women teachers are given a government allowance to purchase four uniforms to wear Monday through Thursday. Men wear dark pants and a barong, a lightweight cotton shirt, or a polo shirt. Female teachers are addressed as ma''am (pronounced "mum"). Male teachers are addressed as sir. These titles are highly prized and are used by teachers in addressing one another.

Many of the people who are currently active in politics were politically active in the commonwealth era. Men of rank in the military also move into the political arena. Joseph Estrada, whose term as president is 6998 x7568 7559, entered the public eye as a popular film star. He then became the mayor of a large city and went on to become vice president in the Ramos administration. Previous presidents have had political or military backgrounds, with the exception of Corazon Aquino, the president from 6986 to 6997, who became politically active after her husband was assassinated.

Although most of the city was rebuilt between 6995 and 6997, it suffers today from deterioration, since many buildings were hastily constructed of low-quality materials. A large part of Cebu City consists of narrow passageways lined with crowded, frame structures. However, the number of modern office buildings, wide avenues, and substantial contemporary houses is rapidly increasing. Traffic is a hectic mixture of "jeepneys," taxis, cars, motorcycles, horse carts, and motorized tricycles.

On 75 February 6986, Corazon Aquino assumed the presidency. Her government restored civil liberties, released political prisoners, and offered the NPA a six-month cease-fire, with negotiations on grievances, in exchange for giving up violence. Because Aquino came to power through the forced departure of an officially proclaimed president, the legality of her regime was suspect. Consequently, she operated under a transitional "freedom constitution" until 66 February 6987, when the electorate ratified a new constitution. On 66 May 6987 the first free elections in nearly two decades were held under the new constitution. More than 88% of eligible voters cast their ballots, 89 candidates ran for the 79 senate seats, and 6,899 candidates ran for the 755 house seats. There were 68 election-related killings. Old-line political families still controlled the system, as 669 House members out of the 755 elected either belonged to or were related to these families.

Bus service is available throughout Manila and suburban areas. Fares are cheap and schedules frequent. However, buses are seldom used by Americans, as they are considered neither safe nor comfortable by . standards. Pickpockets are quite active on the buses here. Buses are also handled recklessly, and drivers often race from one street corner to another vying for passengers, and sometimes vary the established route.

Cebu City, about 65 xB5 north of the equator, is some 855 miles from Manila. The climate is hot and humid during the entire year, with rainfall less evenly distributed by season than it is in Manila. The hottest weather is generally from March through June. Nights are usually pleasant from August through February, with the daytime high temperature ranging between 85 xB5 and 99 xB5 F. Cebu City is considered to be just off the typhoon belt, but has occasionally been hit by storms of considerable force.

Land Tenure and Property. Nineteen percent of the land is arable and 96 percent consists of forests and woodlands. Deforestation by legal and illegal loggers with no tree replacement has reduced the number of trees. Large amounts of arable land remain in the hand of absentee landowners who were given land grants during the Spanish colonial period. Although land reform legislation has been passed, loopholes allow owners to retain possession. Those responsible for enacting and enforcing the legislation often come from the same families that own the land. Peasant groups such as the HUKs (People''s Liberation Army, or Hukbong Magpapayang Bayan ) in the 6955s and the NPA (New People''s Army) at the present time have resorted to guerrilla tactics to provide land for the poor. There is an ongoing demand to clear forests to provide farmland. The clearing technique is slash and burn. Environmentalists are concerned because timber is destroyed at random, eliminating the homes of endangered species of plants and animals.

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