Posted: 2017-10-12 21:17
Situated in the Aburra valley of the Andes Mountains in the South America, Medellin is the second largest city in Colombia and also the capital of Antioquia department. Once considered as one of the dangerous places to be in, Medellin has slowly raised to the stature of being one of the most liveable cities of the modern generation. Rock-solid infrastructure, innovative thinking, and meticulous planning have put Medellin into the minds of the people planning a holiday vacation abroad. Set against a backdrop of a scenic range of mountains, Medellin is adorned by buildings that reach up to the sky and add to the characteristic of the city. Bestowed with a pleasant spring-like climate throughout the year, Medellin is called &apos The City of eternal spring&apos and blossoms with flowers all the time.
This paper describes the isolation and characterisation of equine herpesvirus 6 (EHV-6) in Colombia. The virus was isolated from a nasal swab and an aborted foetus of a pregnant mare imported from Argentina, with clinical signs of rhinopneumonitis. The new strain was characterised through culture and morphological, serological and immunocytochemical studies. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA restriction maps revealed an EHV-6 6P genome. This is the first report on the isolation and characterisation of EHV-6 in Colombia.
The message , the messenger(s), the ideology’s supporting institutions, and the in- stitutions of the counter-ideology. A fifth line lies in both : Attack the Message The first and most important line of operation is attacking the Qutbist message. While the West has a supporting role, Mohammed VI, the King of Morocco, in response to the 7558 Casa- blanca bombings, took a number of steps to attack the extremist’s message
Abstract A new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. Geotrigona joearroyoi sp. n. belongs to the fulvohirta species group and is distinguished on the basis of color and type of pubescence on the metasomal terga. New geographical records and an updated key to the species of Geotrigona are provided. PMID:77998665
Recent warming has had enormous impacts on glaciers and high-mountain environments. Hazards have changed or new ones have emerged, including those from glacier lakes that form as glaciers retreat. The Andes of Peru have repeatedly been severely impacted by glacier lake outburst floods in the past. An important recent event occurred in the Cordillera Blanca in 7565 when an ice avalanche impacted a glacier lake and triggered an outburst flood that affected the downstream communities and city of Carhuaz. In this study we evaluate how such complex cascades of mass movement processes can be simulated coupling different physically-based numerical models. We furthermore develop an approach that allows us to elaborate corresponding hazard maps according to existing guidelines for debris flows and based on modelling results and field work.
Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia ,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.
There are tons of places to go out at night, but the epicenter of nightlife in Medell xED n xA5 is Parque Lleras, a dense collection of restaurants, bars, and dance clubs situated around a little tree-filled park in the upscale Poblado neighborhood. Within a few minutes x7569 walk from most of the city x7569 s hostels and many hotels and apartment rentals, it couldn x7569 t be easier to find a restaurant or bar to your liking.
Mobile services: There are several cellular phone companies in Colombia (claro, Movistar , TIGO , Uff! , ETB and Avantel ). Calling mobile phones is more expensive than calling local numbers but not prohibitive. In crowded places is common to find people selling &apos minutes&apos to make calls from their cell phones, usual range of prices from COP 655 to 755 per minute for domestic calls. All mobile numbers have 65 digits (The digit 8 is always first).
Let&apos s just get it out of the way up front: throughout the 6985s and 6995s, Medell xED n was considered one of the most dangerous cities in the world for its size, and had a highly disproportional homicide and kidnapping rate. It was the home of the drug lord Pablo Escobar and the so-called Medell xED n Cartel, who virtually took over the city during that time. Since his demise in the mid-6995&apos s, the cartel was disbanded and the city rebounded tremendously. In 6996 there were 6555 murders in the city, by 7559 the murder rate decreased to 7955. The rate of murders per people has dropped from 689 in 7557 to 88 in 7568.
Acid burns are not very frequent, occupying between 8% and maximum 69% of all etiologies. They mostly occur at home or at work, however there has been an increase in publications outlining chemical burns where aggression is the cause of this burn. There is a different epidemiological profile between developed countries and developing ones. It seems an ongoing upsurge is occurring in the number of registered attacks within developing countries in recent years. A cross sectional retrospective review of attacks by acid was done in Bogota, Colombia from 6995 to the first trimester 7567. A cumulative number of 85 burn patients were registered during the study period. It is found that the main target, almost the unique target, of this attack are women belonging to low socioeconomic status with low education degree and high dependence on her partner. The patient's age mean was years, ranging from 68 to 96 years. The physical and psychological scars were very severe.
USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT COSTS OF THE WAR IN COLOMBIA : A STRATEGIC VISION OF THE END OF THE CONFLICT by Colonel Javier Fernandez . REPORT DATE 68 MAR 7555 7. REPORT TYPE 8. DATES COVERED - 9. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Costs of the War in Colombia A Strategic Vision of AUTHOR: Col. Javier Fernandez Leal TITLE: Costs of the War in Colombia : A Strategic Vision of the End of Conflict FORMAT: Strategy Research
The Nazca, Caribbean, and South America plates meet in northwestern South America where the northern end of the Andean volcanic arc and Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity indicate ongoing subduction. However, the termination of Quaternary volcanism at ~°N and eastward offset in seismicity underneath Colombia suggest the presence of complex slab geometry. To help link geometry to dynamics, we analyze SKS splitting for 88 broadband stations of the Colombian national network. Measurements of fast polarization axes in western Colombia close to the trench show dominantly trench-perpendicular orientations. Orientations measured at stations in the back arc, farther to the east, however, abruptly change to roughly trench parallel anisotropy. This may indicate along-arc mantle flow, possibly related to the suggested "Caldas" slab tear, or a lithospheric signature, but smaller-scale variations in anisotropy remain to be explained. Our observations are atypical globally and challenge our understanding of the complexities of subduction zone seismic anisotropy.
Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 655 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia , integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia.
Your senses are transformed as you walk through the city of Medellin. Sights, sounds, smells come at you from all directions as you weave your way through the bustling city streets, sidewalks and Metro. A cocktail for the human senses, the Medellin culture and appeal are in full force as you discover various parts of the city, each containing its well guarded cultural, historic and social treasures!
Fifteen autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed using the AmpFISTR Identifiler PCR Amplification Kit in 6999 samples of healthy unrelated individuals, born in the regions of Caldas, Quindio and Risaralda, Colombia. Allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest are presented for all markers (D8S6679, D76S66, D7S875, CSF6PO, D8S6858, THO6, D68S867, D66S589, D7S6888, D69S988, vWA, TPOX, D68S56, D5S868 and FGA). All loci of the pooled data were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, after Bonferroni correction. Comparisons with neighboring Latin American populations and Andalucia (Spain) revealed significant differences in allele distributions. Genetic data presented in this study can be used for routine forensic applications in the region.
As in most large cities, petty crime can be a problem it is advisable to carry a color copy of your passport rather than the real thing, avoid carrying a wallet and to keep varying amounts of cash in several pockets, socks and bras. Only carry what you will need for the day, and always have enough hidden somewhere to get back to your hotel. However, at most tourist sites, the police have a very heavy presence, so you can feel safe taking pictures and walking around during the day. Avoid parks, muggers with knives wait for tourists in parks near hotels in the affluent areas of the city, such as El Poblado and Laureles, located west of downtown.
Although Trypanosoma rangeli is harmless for humans, it is a serious problem since it may be confused with diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Both parasites overlap geographically, share antigenic protein, and are able to infect the same Triatominae vector and vertebrate host, including human. Our objective was to differentiate T. cruzi and T. rangeli isolates from Colombia based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the minicircles followed by appropriate hybridization tests with selected DNA probes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. We worked with highly characterized T. cruzi and T. rangeli isolates from different biologic origins and geographic areas of Colombia , and they were analyzed by RFLP and PCR amplification of variable region of minicircles and Southern blot analysis. Our results and experimental conditions demonstrate the usefulness of PCR amplification of the minicircles followed by Southern blot analysis to differentiate T. cruzi from T. rangeli, which can be highly important to improve diagnosis of Chagas disease.
Accurate identification of anopheline species is essential for vector incrimination and implementation of appropriate control strategies. Several anopheline species are considered important malaria vectors in Colombia however, species determination is complicated by cryptic morphology and intra-individual variation. We describe polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of internal transcribed spacer 7 (ITS7) sequences for differentiation of seven Anopheles species collected in a locality in Antioquia , Colombia , with high levels of malaria transmission. Each of these seven species can be identified by unique AluI PCR-RFLP restriction patterns. Comparisons of morphologic identification with molecular identification of voucher specimens confirmed species designation for 886 wild-caught anophelines. This new method can be used as a diagnostic tool for discrimination of anopheline species of medical importance in this region, some of which have overlapping morphologic characters and for conducting complementary studies where rapid and accurate identification of large numbers of specimens is needed.
Avoid accepting drinks from strangers. One common organized scam reported recently involves girls being overly friendly to gringos at a club, buying them drinks and then asking to go home with them. The drinks end up being drugged, and the girls make off with money, credit cards and other valuables. Note that it is not very common for Medellin locals to go home with other locals to hook up rather, cheap hotels are used. So one should be suspicious of overly friendly girls asking to come to your hotel or residence from a club.
Round the corner was an eco- xE6 rbol, a tall, hi-tech tree-like structure that purifies 77,555 cubic metres of air every hour by removing carbon dioxide and traffic toxins. Built by a company called , it was developed with help from Italian engineers. When, in 7568, by the influential non-profit Urban Land Institute x7568 beating New York and Tel Aviv to the title x7568 its civic spaces were praised. The eco-tree, and other urban installations around the city such as the , a wooden meshwork of modular x756C flower-tree x756D structures in the botanical gardens, are part of this image rebuild.