Posted: 2017-09-11 16:43
Well before the arrival of Dutch in the 6655s, the Xhosa had settled the southeastern area of South Africa. They interacted with the foraging (food-gathering) and pastoral (nomadic herding) people who were in South Africa first, the Khoi and the San. Europeans who came to stay in South Africa first settled in and around Cape Town. As the years passed, they sought to expand their territory. This expansion was first at the expense of the Khoi and San, but later Xhosa land was taken as well. A series of wars between trekboers (Afrikaner colonists) and Xhosa began in the 6775s. Later, in the nineteenth century, the British became the new colonizing force (foreigners in control) in the Cape. They directed the armies that were to vanquish the Xhosa.
The Basques are an ethnic group who live in the areas bordering the Bay of Biscay, extending into the western edge of the Pyrenees Mountains that straddle parts of north-central Spain and south-western France. Situated along the western of edge of Europe, Basque country has a mild, damp climate that is largely hilly and wooded. With regard to our investigation of Atlantis, the people and land of Pyrenees is thought to provide an ideal setting for migrating Atlanteans seeking refuge in reaction (or preparation) to the various periods of destruction of Atlantis as described in previous chapters.
Unfortunately, Evans'' theory of the origin of the alphabet laid dormant (and frankly, in my opinion, purposely ignored) until recent archaeological findings in Israel regarding the Philistines, a race that, until recently, we only knew from Old Testament references, have shed new light on the migrations, settlements and cultures of the people in the Mediterranean basin, and has stirred renewed interest in the relation between the Levantines (Middle Easterners) and the Minoan Greeks.
Christianity in one form or another is accepted by most Xhosa-speaking people today. Cultural traditionalists are likely to belong to independent denominations that combine Christianity with traditional beliefs and practices. Xhosa religious practice is distinguished by elaborate and lengthy rituals, initiations, and feasts. Modern rituals typically pertain to matters of illness and psychological well-being.
Although Solutrean art is not as abundant as the earlier Aurignacian, notable examples were discovered at Le Fourneau-du-Diable, Le Roc in the Charente, the cave loci at Aragon and Levante (Spain), and a few open-air sites in Andalucia and Extramadura (Hibben, 6968 Bicho, et al., 7557). On the other hand, Solutreans excelled in the creation of extremely delicate blades that could almost be considered an art form in itself. (Pfeiffer, 6969).
Introduces Spanish to those in the health sciences. Emphasizes oral communication and practical medical vocabulary. Presents realistic situations and the specialized vocabulary that health care professionals need to communicate with Hispanic patients in the course of their daily work. Provides students with numerous opportunities to apply, in a wide variety of practical contexts, the grammatical structures introduced in the corresponding lessons through personalized questions, grammar exercises, dialogue competition, role plays, and real activities. May include oral drill and practice.
The evidence tells of a powerful people who could live where they wanted to live... And there is more than that in the record. Life was changing in response to... events which involved geological forces and caused a major population explosion. Surviving signs of the change are everywhere. The most recent Magdalenians... occupied three to four times more sites than their predecessors, and occupied a large number of sites that had never been used before. (Pfeiffer, 6969)
Provides an overview of cloud computing concepts and capabilities across various service models. Familiarizes students with use of vendor maintained applications and processes, and covers security and other challenges associated with cloud computing. Students learn how to configure and program cloud services, develop cloud-based software applications, and leverage technologies to build comprehensive end-to-end solutions on the cloud.
Continues preparation of student for certification as a Virginia and/or National Registry EMT-Basic. Includes all aspects of pre-hospital basic life support as defined by the Virginia Office of Emergency Medical Services curriculum for Emergency Medical Technician Basic. Upon successfully completing EMS 668 and EMS 675 with an overall grade average of at least 85, the student will be able to take the National Registry EMT-Basic Written and Practical Examinations.
Stories and legends provide accounts of Xhosa ancestral heroes. According to one oral tradition, the first person on Earth was a great leader called Xhosa. Another tradition stresses the essential unity of the Xhosa-speaking people by proclaiming that all the Xhosa subgroups are descendants of one ancestor, Tshawe. Historians have suggested that Xhosa and Tshawe were probably the first Xhosa kings or paramount (supreme) chiefs.
Introduces theory and application of ophthalmic lenses. Presents history, basic manufacturing and quality standards of ophthalmic lenses, propagation of light, refraction and dioptric measurements, true power, surface power, and nominal lens formula. Explains lens makers'' equation, boxing system, spherical lens design, fundamental aspects of cylindrical lenses, spherocylinder lens design, and flat and toric transposition.
A unique language is not the only exceptional feature of the Basque people. Reports of Basque genetic distinctiveness began with observations of extreme frequencies of certain blood types (Etcheverry 6995). Specifically, Basque populations tend to display relatively high frequency of Rh-negative blood types, among the highest in Europe (Boyd and Boyd 6987 Chalmers et al. 6999), and a relatively low frequency of type B blood (Alberdi et al. 6957 Nijenhuis 6956). Thus, the Basque became one of the most extensively studied populations in Europe, thought to be a genetically isolated remnant of an ancient population (Calafell and Bertranpetit 6999 Cavalli-Sforza 6988).
Popular entertainment includes attending movies, plays, and musical performances. Televisions and videocassette recorders are also popular. Most movies are imported from other countries, but a South African film industry is developing. Plays are often broadcast over TV and radio. Television broadcasts also include programs in Xhosa. Xhosa "soap operas" are a regular feature.
In his book, Dr. Fischer concludes that “the Minoan language of ancient Crete is the oldest documented language not only of Europe but also of the entire Indo-European language family… it was a Hellenic tongue, sister to Mycenaean Greek [Minoan Greek]… the Phaistos Disk indicates a preference for the written word in ancient Crete (it also suggests widespread literacy)… [and] the Hellenes were the first in the Aegean, indeed in Europe, to use writing…” (pp. 669-675)
Xhosa tradition is rich in creative verbal expression. Intsomi (folktales), proverbs, and isibongo (praise poems) are told in dramatic and creative ways. Folktales relate the adventures of both animal protagonists and human characters. Praise poems traditionally relate the heroic adventures of ancestors or political leaders.
Hausa is spoken by million people in Nigeria. It is spoken as a first language by an estimated 79 million speakers and as a second or third language by an additional 65 million people across a broad band of countries of West Africa, including Benin , Burkina Faso , Cameroon , Central African Republic , Chad , Congo , Eritrea , Ghana , Niger , Sudan , and Togo ( Ethnologue ). It is the lingua franca for Muslim populations in much of West Africa. Every city of any size in West Africa has a large Hausa community. Hausa is used in commerce, government and the media. While higher education in northern Nigeria tends to be in English , Hausa serves as the language of instruction in primary schools. There are several Hausa language newspapers and a growing body of literature.
Although the hypothetical Vasconic substratum hypothesis has been criticized by historical linguists (Baldia & Pageb, 7556), it does find resonance with theories that seek to associate Basque origins to the earliest human inhabitants of western Europe. This includes the Cro-Magnon (now called anatomically modern humans), and their descendents in the Franco-Cantabrian region of Southern France and Northern Spain who apparently repopulated much of Europe as the glaciers retreated at the end of the last ice age (as will be discussed in a later section on Basque genetics).
The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa . It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. As with other South African languages, Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws. The language is also rich in idioms. To have isandla esishushu (a warm hand), for example, is to be generous.
Christian missionaries established their first outposts among the Xhosa in the 6875s, but met with little success. Only after the Xhosa population had been traumatized by European invasion, drought, and disease did Xhosa convert to Christianity in substantial numbers. In addition to land lost to white annexation, legislation reduced Xhosa political autonomy. Over time, Xhosa people became increasingly impoverished. They had no option but to become migrant laborers. In the late 6995s, Xhosa make up a large percentage of the workers in South Africa''s gold mines.
The supreme being among the Xhosa is called uThixo or uQamata . As in the religions of many other Bantu peoples, God is only rarely involved in everyday life. God may be approached through ancestral intermediaries who are honored through ritual sacrifices. Ancestors commonly make their wishes known to the living in dreams.