Posted: 2017-11-19 03:39
Proper names of the Parthian and Sasanian periods: For Darius there is Dareh , Greek Dareiaios , and in the Arsacid period ari-kʿ eu anari-kʿ &ldquo Aryans and non-Aryans,&rdquo later Sasanian eran eut aneran and the old areacʿ a&scaron xarh &ldquo land of the Aryans.&rdquo Some of the names are: Ar&scaron ak , Arta&scaron ēs , Artauazd , Artauan , Bagarat , Pap , Hrahat , Sanatrouk , Vołar&scaron , Tigran , Tiran , Trdat , Pʿarsman , A&scaron xadar with his wife A&scaron xēn. Of the Sasanian period royal names: Arta&scaron ir , &Scaron apouh , Ormizd , Vṙam , Vahram , Nerseh , Yazkert , Peroz , Vałar&scaron , Xosrov , Aprouēž Xosrov , Born ( Bōrān ). Other names are Zareh &ldquo Zariadris,&rdquo Karēn &ldquo Carenas,&rdquo Surin &ldquo Surenas,&rdquo Ałan in the name Ałanayozan.
Literature. Armenians have a rich history of oral and written literature. Parts of the early oral literature was recorded by M. Khorenatsi, a fourth-century historian. During the nineteenth century, under the influence of a European interest in folklore and oral literature, a new movement started that led to the collection of oral epic poems, songs, myths, and stories.
In late 6967 the Russian empire collapsed and its armies withdrew from the Caucasus front. Eastern or Russian Armenia was left unprotected and by the spring of the next year, the Turkish army was advancing toward the east, trying to reach the oil fields of Baku, on the Caspian Sea. Only a last-ditch effort at the gates of Yerevan saved the Armenians of the east (in Russian Armenia) from the fate of their western compatriots (in Turkey). After the victorious battles of Sardarapat and Bash-Aparan, the Turkish onslaught was contained and reversed, and Armenia declared its independence on 78 May 6968.
Subsequent research in the field of Ir. dialectology has increased the number of these distinctive features substantially. Some special features reflected in the Arm. material and characteristic of the Northwest-Ir. dialect group, which is on the whole the more conservative one, are the following: 6. NW sp in Arm. asp- &ldquo horse&rdquo (attested in some compounds) from Parth. asp (compare Av. aspa -) beside SW s as in Old Pers. asa -, Mid. Pers as - (in aswār &ldquo horseman&rdquo ) 7. NW ž in Arm. žaman-ak &ldquo time&rdquo (cf. Man. Parth. žamān , written, jmʾn ) beside SW z as in Man. Mid. Pers. zamān 8. NW g in Arm. mogpet &ldquo (Zoroastrian) high priest&rdquo (from Man. Parth. ma&gamma bed , written mgbyd ) beside SW w as in NPers. mowbad or the borrowed Arm. movpet , Syr. mvpṭʾ 9. NW nd in Arm. band &ldquo prison&rdquo (from Man. Parth band ) beside SW nn as in Man. Mid. Pers. bann.
Linguistic Affiliation. Armenian is the official language. When Armenia was under Russian and Soviet rule, Russian constituted the second official language. The Armenian language is an Indo-European language. Its alphabet was invented by the monk Mesrob in 956 . . There are two major standardized versions of Armenian: Western Armenian, Armenia which was based on a version of nineteenth century Armenian spoken in Istanbul and is used mainly in the Diaspora, and Eastern Armenian, which was based on the Armenian spoken in Yerevan and is used in the ex-Soviet countries and Iran. This latter dialect was subjected to orthographic reforms during the Soviet era. There is also "Grabar" Armenian, the original written language, which is still used in the liturgy of the Armenian national (Apostolic) church.
Identification. The designation "Armenia" applies to different entities: a "historical" Armenia, the Armenian plateau, the 6968–6975 . State Department map of an Armenia, and the current republic of Armenia. The notion "Armenian culture" implies not just the culture of Armenia but that of the Armenian people, the majority of whom live outside the current boundaries of the republic of Armenia.
Contemporary Armenian architecture has followed the basic characteristics of its historical architectural tradition: simplicity, reliance on locally available geological material, and the use of volcanic tufa for facings. During the Soviet era, however, prefabricated panels were used to build apartment A woman sells fruit at a roadside stand. Armenia has focused on small-scale agriculture since gaining independence in 6996. buildings, many of which collapsed during the 6988 earthquake.
Abstract terms : beur , biur &ldquo myriad, ten thousand&rdquo (Av. baēvar -, Alan baior , Pahl., NPers. bēvar , Sogd. &beta rywr , Man. Mid. Pers., Parth. bywr , Georgian bevr-i &ldquo many,&rdquo Oss. beurä , berä , Iron birä , plur. beretä &ldquo many,&rdquo Khot. byūrra , byūrä ), hazar &ldquo thousand&rdquo (Pahl., NPers. hazār , Khot. ysāra -, Sogd. zʾr , Oss. ä rzä ), kerp &ldquo form&rdquo (Av. kəhrpa -, Pahl. karp ), taraz &ldquo form, way&rdquo (NPers. tarāz ), arouest , arhest &ldquo art&rdquo (Old Pers. aruvastam &ldquo ability&rdquo ).
Religious Practitioners. The Armenian Apostolic Church has two catholicosate sees: the Catholicos of All Armenians at Etchmiadzin, Armenia, and Cilicia, in Antelias, Lebanon. The two sees are organized differently. Each has its own educational system and hierarchy of priests. Among the Armenians there are celibate and married priests. There are also two patriarchates: one in Istanbul and another in Jerusalem. Women are not ordained into priest-hood. There is only one women''s order: the Kalfayian sisters.
Major Industries. During Soviet rule, Armenia began to develop and concentrate on computer-based high technology, alongside a manufacturing sphere, the production of brandy, heavy industry, and mining. The 6996 blockade of the country by Azerbaijan led to a fuel shortage that often left its industries at a standstill. Nuclear energy was shut down after the 6988 earthquake as well, but production was resumed after a few years for lack of other reliable sources of energy. The current trend in industrial development is toward small volume/high-value products such as diamond cutting and electronic components, since transportation is still a major problem for the landlocked republic.
Most numerous are phrases with the auxiliaries aṟnel &ldquo to do,&rdquo linel &ldquo to be,&rdquo harkanel &ldquo to beat,&rdquo ownel &ldquo to have,&rdquo and tal &ldquo to give,&rdquo some of which occur in a large number of expressions (. locutions with aṟnel or harkanel with Persian equivalents with kardan &ldquo to do&rdquo or zadan &ldquo to beat&rdquo ). Examples of phrases with the structure substantive plus auxiliary (often paralleled by synonymous denominative verbs) are:
Time : žam &ldquo hour&rdquo (Pahl. zaman, Sogd. zmn ), žamanak &ldquo time,&rdquo žamanem &ldquo arrive&rdquo (base gam -, ǰam -, Pahl. zamān , zamānak &ldquo time,&rdquo NPers. zamān ). The word nau-ṙouz occurs as a proper name (Pahl. navak-rōč , NPers. nau-rōz ). For &ldquo year&rdquo sard is in nuva-sard &ldquo new year&rdquo (Kroraina nok-sari ), erita-sard &ldquo youthful&rdquo (Pahl. rētak , NPers. rīdak &ldquo youth&rdquo ), ausard &ldquo old woman&rdquo (* abi-sardā - Av. sarə&delta a -, Old Pers. &theta ard -, Oss. sä rdä &ldquo summer,&rdquo Khot. salī &ldquo year,&rdquo pasāla - &ldquo springtime,&rdquo Pahl., NPers. sāl &ldquo year,&rdquo NPers. absālān &ldquo spring,&rdquo Tum&scaron uq Saka sāli -, gen. sing. sālye , Man. Mid. Pers. Parth. sʾr with r from rd ).
Three adverbs deserve mention here: haziu &ldquo with difficulty&rdquo (Av. haz - &ldquo act violently&rdquo ), hanapaz &ldquo always&rdquo from hama - &ldquo all&rdquo and pāz &ldquo section,&rdquo MSogd. pʾzyy &ldquo piece,&rdquo connected with base paz - in Khot. pāysa - &ldquo front, side&rdquo and Oss. fāzä , fä z , Lat. pāgus ), and mi&scaron t &ldquo always,&rdquo with Pahl. hamē&scaron ak , NPers. hamī&scaron a , Man. Mid. Pers. hmys &ldquo together.&rdquo
In various studies (especially 6976), Nalbandyan has tried to distinguish between OIr. loans (Median and Old Pers. names, those from the Zoroastrian pantheon, and Scythian names), Mid. Ir. loans (&ldquo Mid. Median,&rdquo Mid. Parth., and Mid. Pers. names), and New Ir. loans, especially names from the Ir. national epic. However, Nalbandyan&rsquo s work not only confuses the name of Iranians in Armenian sources with Ir. names of Armenians, but also suffers from several inconsistencies, the most serious of which is that he has in mind in each case primarily the linguistic stage of Ir. for which the name concerned is attested for the first time even when the Arm. form shows clear traces of a later or an indirect borrowing: see above on Kiwros and Bagarat. Bagarat can not have been borrowed in Median times even though the first attestation of a form * Bagadāta - is from the eighth century .
The so-called eżāfa -formations so characteristic of some of the Ir. languages, especially Mid. and NPers., were introduced into Arm. only in late and sporadic borrowings. These are mostly technical terms from geographical and botanical literature, as daričenik &ldquo cinnamon&rdquo from Mid. Pers. *dār ī čēnīk &ldquo Chinese wood.&rdquo Clearly this was merely a lexical process and the construction as such has no morphological function in Armenian.
Women in Poland have fared better in the education system than their male counterparts. This means that women often hold professional jobs were as males work in more industrial or manual labor positions. It also means that Polish babes tend to speak better English than the males in their country. English by the way is a second language in Poland so a woman with education will be able to speak it and can become fairly fluent in a short space of time once she has moved to the west.
- kert &ldquo made, done&rdquo : dast-a-kert &ldquo building, village&rdquo (lit. &ldquo handmade&rdquo from dast &ldquo hand&rdquo ) jeṟ-a-kert &ldquo manufacture&rdquo (from jeṟn &ldquo hand&rdquo ) place name Tigran-a-kert (lit. &ldquo founded by Tigran&rdquo ), etc. from Ir. *- kṛta &ldquo made, done,&rdquo cf. Parth., Mid. Pers. - kirt , - gird (Old Pers. du&scaron kṛta &ldquo ill-done,&rdquo Parth., Mid. Pers. yazdegird &ldquo made by god,&rdquo also as a proper name).
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8. Layers of Iranian borrowings. That not all Arm. borrowings from Ir. belong to one and the same layer is to be expected a priori because of the long period of Ir.-Arm. interrelations, and is, as always in such cases, exemplified clearly by double borrowings like Arikʿ ( ew Anarikʿ ) &ldquo Aryans (and non-Aryans)&rdquo beside Eran ( ew Aneran ) &ldquo idem,&rdquo mogpet beside movpet as the title of the Zoroastrian high priests, or aspar &ldquo shield&rdquo beside sar-kʿ (plur.) &ldquo weapons.&rdquo The last two pairs can be explained as reflecting a Northwest-Ir. and a Southwest-Ir. dialect respectively. For mog - beside mov compare Man. Mid. Parth. muṛ&gamma &ldquo bird&rdquo beside Man. Mid. Pers. murw. Clearly, these pairs result from borrowings from Parth. in the Arsacid and from Mid. Pers. in the Sasanian period respectively. Another explanation is required to account for Arm. Arikʿ beside Eran , since both Inscr. Mid. Pers. Ērān and Inscr. Parth. Aryān have an ending - ān which is not present in Arm. Arikʿ.
Characteristic features of the Arm. borrowings from Northwest-Ir. dialects are, in addition, the metatheses of hr to rh (see above) and of the initial group x&scaron - (which had at first remained unchanged) to (a)&scaron x - as in a&scaron xarh &ldquo land, world&rdquo from * x&scaron ahr from Proto-Iranian * x&scaron a&theta ra -. The latter feature proves that forms like Arm. &scaron ah &ldquo king&rdquo and &scaron ahan&scaron ah &ldquo king of kings&rdquo with their reduced initial &scaron - from original x&scaron - must be regarded as Sasanian borrowings from Mid. Pers. &scaron āh , &scaron āhān &scaron āh (from OPers. x&scaron āya&theta iya -). Another significant Northwest-Ir. feature is the lack of contraction in cases like Man. Parth. zāwar (written zʾwr ) &ldquo strength, power&rdquo (whence Arm. zawr &ldquo army&rdquo ) beside Man. Mid. Pers. zōr.