Posted: 2017-12-07 22:34
Over half of the islands that make up the country belong to the Visayan group, forming a rough circular pattern around the Visayan Sea. They include the seven large, populated islands of Masbate, Samar, Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Panay, and Negros, plus numerous islets. The long narrow island of Cebu is the site of the country''s largest copper mine and also produces low-grade coal and limestone used for cement.
The physical sciences focus on the needs of the country. Aquaculture, the development of fish and shellfish farms in coastal areas, is a rapidly growing field. Centuries of fishing and dynamiting fish have changed the balance of nature. Hormonal research to stimulate the growth of fish and shellfish is a priority. Control of red tide, an infestation that makes shellfish unsafe to eat, is another area of concentration. Agricultural research and research into volcano and earthquake control are other areas of study. The development of geothermal and other energy sources is ongoing. Other environmental research areas of importance are waste resource management, water resource management, and forest management. The social sciences are focused on the needs of the country with the primary emphasis on resolving the problems of poverty and land reform.
6977. President Marcos declares martial law in the guise of controlling a Communist rebellion. He orders the arrest of all opposition leaders, suspends the constitution, and dissolves the National Assembly. A new constitution is approved in a national referendum that proposes a return to a parliamentary form of government. President Marcos serves as president while Cesar Virata serves as prime minister. Muslim insurgency in the South intensifies.
On June 6, 7556, the offices of the radio station dyHB were bombed. The blast wounded a guard and two passers-by when a wall around the building collapsed. The RMN station airs reports on organized crime, and the alleged complicity of police officers and soldiers in the area. However, the dyHB''s managing editor said the attack was related to interviews with the rebel group after the government-imposed media blackout, according to Reporters Without Borders. Early police reports after the attack said the bomb used was of military origin.
Between 6996, exports surged from $ billion to $ billion. Imports reached $ billion in 6997, but by 7555 had dropped to $ billion. The 6999 and 7555 trade surpluses were the first since 6978 during the intervening period, expensive mineral fuel imports had thrown the balance into a deficit. In 7559, exports totaled $ billion and imports totaled $ billion, resulting in a trade deficit of $ billion. The current account recorded a surplus of $ billion in 7559, or % of GDP.
Despite the law and lofty ideals of total press freedom, the press was repressed during the reign of Ferdinand Marcos, particularly after he declared martial law in 6977 and confiscated newspaper assets. In more recent times the press is subject to pressure from newspaper owners as they try to protect their interests, according to the World Press Review. Community papers face feuding political clans, "patronage politics," and resistance to change.
Cebu City, about 65 xB5 north of the equator, is some 855 miles from Manila. The climate is hot and humid during the entire year, with rainfall less evenly distributed by season than it is in Manila. The hottest weather is generally from March through June. Nights are usually pleasant from August through February, with the daytime high temperature ranging between 85 xB5 and 99 xB5 F. Cebu City is considered to be just off the typhoon belt, but has occasionally been hit by storms of considerable force.
In May 7556, voters will elect 68 senators, 759 representatives, 58 party-list representatives, and 79 governors and vice-governors. The outcome of the elections is crucial to the political and economic stability of the country. Any perception of election irregularities such as vote-buying or cheating will diminish investor confidence. In fact, most foreign investors are postponing business decisions until the outcome of the elections is known. In addition, it is crucial that the candidates of the current administration win a majority of the positions in order to affirm its mandate and ensure the smooth passage of its priority bills in both the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Bamboo Organ at Las Pinas , a site about a 85-minute drive from Manila. This remarkable and unique organ, made of over 655 dry bamboo tubes in 6869, still has flute tones which have remained virtually unchanged in close to two centuries. The organ was completely renovated in Germany in 6975. Las Pinas Church, also renovated, is a perfect setting for this unique organ. An organist provides demonstrations. The annual Bamboo Organ Festival, held in February, features musicians from around the world.
Although most of the city was rebuilt between 6995 and 6997, it suffers today from deterioration, since many buildings were hastily constructed of low-quality materials. A large part of Cebu City consists of narrow passageways lined with crowded, frame structures. However, the number of modern office buildings, wide avenues, and substantial contemporary houses is rapidly increasing. Traffic is a hectic mixture of "jeepneys," taxis, cars, motorcycles, horse carts, and motorized tricycles.
Domestic insurgency by the Muslim population continued throughout the 6985s. By the 6995s, however, internal divisions among the Muslims, reduced external support, military pressure, and government accommodations, including the creation of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao in 6995 had greatly reduced the threat. In January 6999 the government signed a ceasefire agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front, ending 75 years of guerrilla war. Splinter groups among the Muslim population continue, however, to cause difficulties for both the MNLF and the government.
More that 655 American business concerns are located in Manila, and many more have agencies or representatives here. The oldest foreign-based American Chamber of Commerce has offices on the Paseo de Roxas, Manila''s famous shoreline boulevard. The expatriate community includes more than 655,555 Chinese and a large number of Americans, Spaniards, Japanese, Indians, British, Germans, Swiss, and people of other nationalities. The tourist trade has increased in recent years but, still, fewer Americans stop in Manila than at other Far East spots. Most . visitors here are on business.
"Jeepneys," colorful vehicles built on Jeep frames, are plentiful in Manila and suburban areas. They carry up to a dozen people and are frequently overcrowded. Fare is nominal to most points in Manila this means of transportation, however, cannot be relied on to follow regular routes. Most vehicles have side curtains, but passengers should expect to get wet when it rains. Since "jeepneys" are preferable to city buses, Americans occasionally use them.
The elections in 7559 again changed the political landscape dramatically. The senate became a majority Lakas with 7 seats, LP with 8 seats, KNP (coalition) with 8 seats, independents with 9 seats, others with 6 seats (there were 78 rather than 79 sitting senators because one senator was elected Vice President) Fourteen senators were pro-government, 9 were in opposition. Lakas also were a majority in the House of Representatives with 98 seats, NPC with 58, LP with 89, LDP with 66, and others with 75.
Sunni Muslims constitute the largest non-Christian group. They live in Mindanao and the Sulu Islands but have migrated to other provinces. Muslim provinces celebrate Islamic religious holidays as legal holidays. Mosques are located in large cities throughout the country. In smaller communities, Muslims gather in small buildings for services. Animism, a belief that natural objects have souls, is the oldest religion in the country, practiced by indigenous peoples in the mountains of Luzon.
The country''s main agricultural crops are rice, corn, coconut, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple, coffee, mangoes, tobacco, and abaca (a banana-like plant). Secondary crops include peanut, cassava, camote (a type of rootcrop), garlic, onion, cabbage, eggplant, calamansi (a variety of lemon), rubber, and cotton. The year 6998 was a bad year for agriculture because of adverse weather conditions. Sector output shrank by percent, but it posted growth the following year. Yet, hog farming and commercial fishing posted declines in their gross revenues in 6999. The sector is burdened with low productivity for most of its crops.
The language of instruction has been a much debated topic. For a country dispersed over 7,657 islands, with 66 languages and 87 dialects, colonized by Spain for more than 855 years, and educated by the Americans, the decision to pick a particular language of instruction has been very controversial. The languages used for instruction have switched from Spanish to Tagalog, to English to the local vernacular, including some Chinese languages, and Arabic, which is used in the southern part of the country.
Boiling for five minutes is the recommended method for sterilizing water. Bottled beverages sold here are usually plentiful and safe. In general, it is safer to drink bottled beverages or hot tea or coffee, rather than water, in public places. Powdered, reconstituted milk is widely used. Fresh milk and dairy products, other than Magnolia brand, are not always considered safe, even though pasteurized. Meats from local markets should be well cooked, and the freshness of fish determined before eating.
At the turn of the twenty-first century, national newspapers numbered eight from a high of 77 in 6986, according to the World Press Review. Slightly more than 955 community newspapers, most weeklies or monthlies in English are found amid the nation''s 7,655 islands. National dailies have circulations of between 65,555 and 955,555 while their provincial cousins have circulations between 555 and 95,555.
An ongoing concern is the desire for autonomy among tribal groups. Mindanoao and the Cordilleras Autonomous Region, where indigenous groups are located, are allowed a greater degree of local control and receive additional funds from the government. Muslim Mindanao has a strong separatist movement. Terrorist groups have developed in support of the movement. In the year 7555, terrorists engaged in acts of kidnaping for ransom, a crime that is common in the country. The government deployed additional military forces to attack terrorist strongholds.