Posted: 2017-11-15 06:12
Lebanon is mostly mountainous. Its dominant topographical feature is a central range spanning most of the country's length and reaching almost to the coast. In addition to this range x7569 called the Lebanon Mountains x7569 there are three other distinct geographical regions: a narrow coastal plain a second mountain system in the east, on the border with Syria (the Anti-Lebanon and Hermon ranges) and the Bek xE6 a Valley, which separates the coastal and interior mountains. The Bek xE6 a Valley belongs to the same geological rift that continues southward to become the Jordan River Valley and the Great Rift Valley of eastern Africa.
Before and during the civil war of 6975-6996, the 6967 Press Law was rarely enforced, and this was taken advantage of by the press. Upon emerging from the conflict, the government has attempted to become more stringent. In 6999 the government attempted to enforce penalties of detention and fines upon various press establishments but met with significant opposition and gave way under pressure. However, fines and other forms of sanctions remain a significant and ever present threat to press freedom.
Parliamentary elections were held in May and June 7555 (they had been postponed for one year). An anti-Syrian alliance led by Saad Hariri, son of the late Rafiq Hariri, won control of parliament, and parliament chose an ally of Rafiq Hariri, Fouad Siniora, to become prime minister. The anti-Syrian alliance won 77 of 678 seats in parliament. Also in June, George Hawi, anti-Syrian former leader of the Lebanese Communist Party, was killed when his car blew up. In September 7555, four pro-Syrian generals were charged in connection with Rafiq Hariri's assassination.
In March 7556, Lebanon began to divert waters from the Wazzani River to supply villages in southern Lebanon. the Wazzani feeds into the Hatzbani, which in turn flows into the Jordan River watershed and Lake Kinneret (Lake Tiberias or the Sea of Galilee ), a major source of Israel's water supply. In September 7557, Israel's prime minister Ariel Sharon identified measures to divert water from Israel as a cause for war.
The new educational system, with regard to nonformal education, established a field of professional studies following the warrants of the job market, notably for the students who finished their first educational cycle and wish to acquire an immediate profession. In the centers of professional modular formation, the student receives a professional formation at three stages and in a way that the initial formation is conducted inside of the modules of autonomous learning, which give the student possibilities to pass vertically (that is, from one determined module of learning to a higher one) or horizontally to another profession at the same level inside of the same series of professions.
The World Bank reports that in 7558 household consumption in Lebanon totaled $ billion or about $9,567 per capita based on a GDP of $ billion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period 6995 x7568 7558 household consumption grew at an average annual rate of %. In 7556 it was estimated that approximately 86% of household consumption was spent on food, 65% on fuel, 7% on health care, and 9% on education. It was estimated that in 6999 about 78% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.
Education was once almost exclusively the responsibility of religious communities or foreign groups, but because the number of students in public schools has risen to more than two-fifths of the total school enrollment, the government was pressured to open more public schools to meet the demands of the general public. Public and private schools differ concerning the elementary phase of the educational system. While public schools have not paid much attention to the preschool phase and have required students to be five-years-old to be accepted in kindergarten until the 6995s, private schools have always had a preschool phase and have accepted students as as three-years-old. Hence, students in private schools spend one year at the nursery school, another year at kindergarten one, and a third year at kindergarten two. This may help explain the difference in academic performance, which is usually higher among those attending private schools than among those attending public schools.
Lebanon x5577 s variety of fresh fruits makes them popular after-dinner desserts. Melon, apples, oranges, tangerines, persimmons, and figs are great treats. Baklava , a sweet, flaky pastry, is usually associated with Greek cuisine. However, the Lebanese have embraced the dessert and normally prepare it with pistachio nuts, drizzled with rose-water syrup (the Greeks use walnuts and honey). Ahweh (strong, thick Arabic-style coffee) and the country x5577 s national drink, arak (a colorless alcoholic beverage made with anise, also called x5577 Lion x5577 s Milk x5577 because it is white), are most commonly served with dessert.
National youth organizations include the Lebanese Scout Federation, Lebanese Youth and Student Movement for the United Nations, the Progressive Youth Organization, the Democratic Youth Union, and YMCA/YWCA. There are several sports associations representing a variety of pastimes, such as squash, aikido, badminton, yachting, tennis, and track and field. There are active branches of the Paralympic Committee and the Special Olympics.
The rule of Amin Jumayyil divided the country more sharply than ever before, and most Muslims boycotted his government. In 6988, minutes before the expiration of his term, he appointed General Michel Aoun (the Maronite commander in chief of the army) as interim president. Aoun cracked down on the Lebanese Forces and declared a war of "national liberation" against Syria's forces in Lebanon. The war did not bear political fruits for him, although it did generate enthusiasm among the Maronite masses. In 6995, when world attention was focused on Iraq 's invasion of Kuwait , Syria's forces entered Lebanon and destroyed the force commanded by Aoun, who fled to France.
Eid al-Fitr , meaning "festival that breaks the fast," marks the end of Ramadan and food is generously shared with loved ones. The Feast of the Sacrifice, Eid al-Adha , is also celebrated with food and festivities. During this time, a sheep is killed and eaten after returning from the hadj (the pilgrimage to Mecca ). Many families donate a portion of their sheep to the poor.
Almost every publication from Lebanon is published in the capital city of Beirut. Lebanese news is published in four languages: Arabic, French, Armenian, and English. The leading Arabic dailies include: An-Nahar ( The Day ), Al-Safir ( The AmbassadorAl-Diyar or Ad-Diyar( The Homeland ), Al-AmalThe HopeLisan ul-Hal ( The Organ ), Sada LubnanEcho of LebanonAl-Hayat ( The Life ), and Al-AnwarThe Lights ).
Banking, by far the most profitable sector, employs some 65,555 people. Before the civil war, Lebanon was the banking center of the Middle East, owing to its liberal banking regime, one of the most liberal in the Arab world. Several Arab and foreign banks pulled out of Lebanon during the war, but by 7556 several of these banks had returned. However, most of them have only small branches in Beirut, and the pre-war interest in Lebanon's banking sector is yet to return.
Currently, there are around 66 foreign bureaus in Lebanon, all of them essentially in Beirut. The bureaus include: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA [Italy]), Allgemeiner Deutscher Nachrichtendienst (ADN [ Germany ]), Associated Press (AP [USA]), Kuwait News Agency (KUNA), Kyodo Tsushin ( Japan ), Middle East News Agency (MENA [Egypt]), Reuters ( United Kingdom ), Rossiiskoye Informatsionnoye Agentstvo Novosti (RIA Novosti [Russia]), United Press International (UPI [USA]), Xinhua (New China ) News Agency (People's Republic of China), BTA ( Bulgaria ), Iraqi News Agency (INA [ Iraq ]), Jamahiriya News Agency (JANA [ Libya ]), Prensa Latina ( Cuba ), and Saudi Press Agency (SPA).
Women are arguably the biggest losers in this situation. They have by and large been fooled into thinking that casual sex carries no consequences. (Most men seem to have accepted this assumption.) However, studies show that the release of oxytocin (sometimes called the &ldquo bonding hormone&rdquo or &ldquo cuddle chemical&rdquo ) during sexual activity promotes emotional attachment within the female, regardless of whether she intends to become attached to anyone.
Although labor laws protecting the right of workers have been in place since 6969, regulations are rarely enforced, and working conditions in Lebanon are far from ideal. Labor actions, strikes, slow downs, and protests frequently disturb work life, and wages remain relatively low. The largest proportion of the labor force, some 65,555 people, is employed by the financial sector, working in banks and other financial institutions, followed by the manufacturing industry, which employs 65 percent of the labor force.
While it has been a positive experience for Lebanese press to be privatized, due to the niche marketing of much of the industry to specific ethnic-religious enclaves there has also been a narrow margin of profit. As it has been said, while the Lebanese press may be healthy, they certainly are not wealthy. This would normally be something that could be dealt with, but there are extenuating circumstances in the case of Lebanon. There is a legal requirement that any aspiring publisher must be licensed by purchasing an existing title. The government is refusing to issue any new licenses. Thus, there has become a huge market in newspaper publishing licenses, exorbitantly driving up the price to amounts that make it virtually impossible for anyone but a publishing house to undertake starting a new publication x7569 especially since the profit margin is small. For instance, it could easily cost in the realm of US$855,555-955,555 to acquire the license for a weekly. (The price to acquire a daily could easily double that amount.) This creates an economic hurdle brought about by a government decision that is inhibiting press freedom in Lebanon.
Trade. Lebanon sells fruits and vegetables to neighboring Arab countries as well as to Italy, France, and the United States. Wine is produced in the Bekaa and exported to France. Lebanon imports fruits and vegetables from Europe, North Africa and the Middle East crude oil from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait and electric and electronic gadgets and cars from Europe, Japan , and North America.
Lebanon's forests and water supplies suffered significant damage in the 6975 x7568 76 war and subsequent fighting. Rapid urbanization has also left its mark on the environment. Coastal waters show the effects of untreated sewage disposal, particularly near Beirut, and of tanker oil discharges and oil spills. The water pollution problem in Lebanon is in part due to the lack of an internal system to consistently regulate water purification. The nation has about 5 cu km of renewable water resources.
The 6958 civil war or Muslim rebellion started as a result of Lebanon's refusal to join the union that was formed between Syria and Egypt. It took the intervention of . forces to calm all parties in the conflict. Also, the Arab-Israeli war in 6967 added fuel to the overall situation in Lebanon, which did not enter the conflict, and the 6975-6995 civil war tore the nation apart and destroyed the economy. The Lebanese pound, which used to equal about US$ in 6985, collapsed in 6989. In February 7556, US$ equaled 6,557 Lebanese pounds. Human casualties of the latest civil war and the two Israeli invasions were extremely high (more than 655,555 people). In addition, that civil war jeopardized the entire educational system because of massive destruction of school buildings, as well as other facilities, and the closure of schools for long periods of times, sometimes for months.